Rampersad, Arnold. New York: Schocken Books, Smiley, Tavis. The Covenant With Black America. West, Sandra L. Sandra L.
Encyclopedia of Hip Hop Literature - PDF Free Download
In Black Noise Rose brings together a wide array of research methods and theories to recount the history of rap and hip hop culture, tracing its evolution from its inner-city origins in s New York to its increasing dependence on in-studio production and technologies in the s. Rose describes rap as an oppositional cultural practice and examines its relationship with black culture in American society.
In other words, rap and hip hop are the means by which impoverished youth of New York cope creatively, and often politically, with poverty and its effects. Rose also analyzes how pervasive stereotypes ascribed to rap, urban youth, and violence affect the corporate institutions that produce rap music and how these institutions take on disciplining and policing roles when dealing with black rappers and their audiences. In her chapter on technology, orality, and black cultural practices in rap music, Rose provides an overview of the syncretism of technology and black cultural practices, explaining, for example, how rap traits such as repetition and sampling are grounded in oral traditions in black culture, such as poetry, word-play, and storytelling.
Equipment typically used in rap music, such as samplers and mixing boards, was recreated and reengineered by urban youth, and Rose explores the meanings given by audiences to those musical properties in rap that are dependent on technology, such as beats, bass, loops, and volume. The ways in which rap audiences ascribe meaning often differ across borderlines of race, gender, and culture.
Despite the criticism, Black Noise is widely considered a cornerstone in the history of rap music. It remains, to this day, a core resource of rap music and hip hop culture for rap fans and scholars alike. New York: Routledge, Basic Civitas: New York, The black poetic tradition in the United States has its roots in the folklore and secular and religious music created by enslaved blacks in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This vernacular culture, steeped in the oral tradition and musical practices of their native Africa, featured characteristic elements and modes of call and response, improvisation, storytelling, irony, hyperbole, rhyme, praise, ridicule, and so on.
These often employed verbal techniques of signifying, rapping, lying, boasting, and toasting. As they struggled to endure the brutal conditions and cruelties of subjugation, they fashioned an ethos of faith, hope, and survival in a society that denied them the basic rights of citizenship and the status of full human beings. Thus the slaves and their descendants found themselves in a complex relationship with the American nation. Thus, whether consciously or unconsciously, the black writer in the United States faces a psychic dilemma.
Consequently, Du Bois and other theorists and artists who came after him declared that black art must confront this fundamental crisis of African American identity. And, if it is to be relevant, it must address the oppressive social conditions stemming from white supremacy. They call for socially responsive art that draws upon folklore and music in order to achieve authentic black expression. Yet these literary poets addressed many of the same themes as their folk counterparts—yearning for freedom, social injustice, the indignities of being deemed inferior to whites, and religious salvation.
And like the folk secular and spiritual music, they often contained coded messages of protest or thinly veiled metaphors indicting the slave masters for their hypocrisy and moral failings. Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects contains some of her best-known protest poetry. In the aftermath of Emancipation, dialect poetry became popular as a means to celebrate the speech and exploits of common folk. James Weldon Johnson and Paul Laurence Dunbar were two of the most accomplished poets in that regard.
But some criticized it as minstrelsy, a parody of black colloquial speech that reinforced white stereotypes of southern blacks as childlike, colorful, and contented. The vibrancy of black cultural and political life in s New York, especially Harlem, helped to spark a period of intense artistic activity and a high point in black creative expression. It marked the Harlem Renaissance as an important historical moment, as black artists and writers achieved unprecedented recognition and publication. Hughes eventually became the most celebrated of the Harlem Renaissance writers, achieving iconic status within the American literary canon.
Hughes addressed the wide range of urban black experience, yet he also wrote poems dealing with southern rural themes. His focus on poverty, class struggle, and promoting international solidarity among the poor and working classes was prompted by his travels to the Soviet Union in the s.
He never ceased his advocacy of a truly racial art though. As Joanne V. Danner, whose absorbing modernist style remains fresh, celebrated African heritage. Kaufman, associated with the northern California Beat scene, addressed the alienation of the visionary artist in vivid, freely associative imagery and jazz-inspired rhythms. As Brooks herself noted, her work was no more political in its themes than it had always been. These values included selflove and black unity, and through their art these poets hoped to transform the lives of the masses of lower and working class blacks.
Others in the forefront of the movement were found in all regions of the country. The poet, rooted in the community, was expected to speak to the people in forms that drew their authenticity from black vernacular speech and music and themes based in an astute understanding of black history and contemporary sociopolitical realities. Many of these poets, like Baraka, wedded their art to radical political activity aimed at creating social revolution.
For others, poetry was analogous to political action, especially in terms of raising awareness of—and explicitly or implicitly offering solutions to—the multiple problems of drugs, violence, poverty, family dysfunction, police repression, joblessness, and so on, plaguing black communities. Poems were crafted and read to emphasize their oral and aural elements. Poets took their cue from the performers in their midst—musicians, singers, preachers, street corner orators, and hawkers of all kinds. Often the poem employed the informal, conversational voice of a familiar—or, it carried the seductive tones of an intimate, the bluesy crooning of a singer, or the commanding cadences of a warrior-general.
Rather than staging poetry readings in the traditional venues of the university or bookstore, poets performed in bars, coffeehouses, churches, clubs, or even on the street, wherever the everyday folk might gather. More so than previous generations, BAM linked poetry to performance. It would become as important again in the s and s with the popularity of spoken word, a performance-oriented style of poetry. His work grew more strident throughout the s, often with provocative images drawn from history and contemporary politics, percussive rhythms, and profane diction that gave it force and immediacy.
Madhubuti delivered pointed irony and caustic wit in poems that often dealt with political awakening and transformation. He and Sanchez both addressed black male-female relationships, and the need for love, unity, and collective building. Her themes later shifted to more personal matters of love, relationship, and motherhood. Their works conveyed their support for African independence movements of the s—s and embraced their African heritage as a source of spiritual sustenance.
The Black Arts left a rich legacy of activism and artistic achievement for poets of succeeding generations. In turn, these elder poets have forged bonds and mentoring relationships with the younger artists. Sanchez, as a creative writing professor and activist-poet, has nurtured numerous poets and hip hop artists in Philadelphia—notably Ursula Rucker and The Roots. By the mid s the prominence of Black Nationalist poetry had waned. Important poets emerged during the declining years of the Black Arts era whose work was less closely associated with the black aesthetic.
They favored instead a wider treatment of themes concerning identity, sexuality, gender, and international politics. Their works assumed, for instance, a broad array of black identities or took feminist stances regarding gender relationships and other social and political issues. Audre Lorde and June Jordan in particular dealt with the politics of sexuality, a topic only narrowly treated by their BAM peers. She also wrote of the power and responsibilities of the mother and her lineage with African warrior-women. Jordan advocated in more militant tones awareness of and action against various and interlocking forms of oppression.
She wrote poems supporting Palestinian rights and condemning Latin American repression and South African apartheid in the s. She also explored personal themes, such as romantic love, opening a space, as did Lorde, to celebrate gay and lesbian and bisexual relationships. It was also controversial, and it was criticized for its negative portrayals of black men. His work is also engaged with music, jazz especially, as a model for his improvisational approach to sound and harmony in poetry. Collectively, these poets represented a departure from the prescriptive program of cultural nationalism and presaged the expansiveness of black poetry in coming years.
During the late s through the s, poets explored a multiplicity of concerns, yet place, history and identity individual, cultural, national , myth, music, community, memory, ancestry, and childhood were recurring subjects. Ethelbert Miller, and transplanted Caribbean poets Kamau Brathwaite and Derek Walcott, among others, emerged as important voices. In Mother Love she explores the Demeter-Persephone relationship in exacting lyric forms. Komunyakaa ranges over a broad terrain in his Pulitzer Prize-winning Neon Vernacular , which contains selections from several of his books.
It includes piercing poems chronicling his Vietnam War experience and complex portraits of his native Bogalusa, Louisiana. His poems are dense landscapes of sound and imagery. Osbey mines the rich cultural heritage of her native New Orleans in poems that honor the rituals of daily life and the ever-present ancestors.
Both Brathwaite and the Nobel Laureate Walcott address cultural memory and pride, as well as identity and language complicated by the colonial past of their native West Indies. The s and s saw the growth of writing collectives and workshops organized and supported by established and emerging writers around the country. And the increasing popularity of hip hop and the phenomenon of the poetry slam would contribute to the abundance and variety of poetic production.
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Spoken word poets have drawn their inspiration and models from Black Arts poets and rap. These artists were overtly political in their messages, as were many early rap artists. Although rap owes its form to the music and performance aesthetic of the Black Arts movement, it can trace its roots to the boasts and toasts of the folk tradition. The poetry slam quickly became a highly popular, and populist, form of poetry presentation, and the competitions soon led to regional and national championships.
Although poets adhere to certain slam rules, winning audience approval is paramount to success. In order for the poet to command attention, delivery became all-important, although the poetry often suffered in quality as a result. The best slam poets, however, could tout well-crafted as well as dramatically delivered poems. Poetry slams thus became a natural venue for the resurrected style known as spoken word.
Most often it is performed in slams, open microphones, concerts, and theater performances. More important, moreover, is that spoken word, despite its immediacy and dramatic force, is ultimately judged by how effectively it uses the fundamental conventions of poetry—line, image, diction, rhythm, form, and so on. And literary poetry, despite its serious reputation, must be orally evocative in order to engage its audience. Contemporary black poetry thrives in both modes. Because of the emphasis on orality, some poets, such as Perdomo, have published their work simultaneously in book and CD formats; others have abandoned the page altogether, in favor of digital formats.
Spoken word phenom Saul Williams has authored four books and recorded as many music CDs. Spoken word, nurtured by hip hop culture, seems to be stimulating a new level of cross-fertilization between the genres. Keene, A. Van Jordan, and Terrance Hayes.
Tracy K. Trethewey has garnered a Pulitzer Prize with work that explores loss and complexities of race and class in the historic and contemporary South. Hemphill, who died in , was outspoken in confronting homophobia, misogyny, and racism. His poems also celebrate black gay relationships and activism. She highlights, among other themes, women, consumer culture, and black vernacular.
Rankine creates hybrid forms, incorporating prose, graphics, and images from television and advertising in work that examines American society. Ellis exploits the idioms of funk and D. And Hayes plays with new forms based on alphabetic, syllabic, and linear schemes. Harris, eds. New York: Thunders Mouth, Brown, Fahamisha Patricia. Gabbin, Joanne V. Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.
McKay, eds. New York: W. Norton, Gladney, Marvin. Lansana, Quraysh Ali. Black Popular Culture refers to mainstream representations of African American life and culture. It relies on the media, music, art, and literature to disseminate and showcase the multifaceted experiences of African American life in the United States. The visibility of Black Popular Culture has grown tremendously since the s through print and visual media. Although no single representative category can adequately speak for all experiences, distinctive characteristics of dress, behavior, and language inform the popular imagination surrounding Black Popular Culture.
This genre ushered in a new era of writers who sought to capture the reality of their lives as Americans silenced by the larger society. Hip hop literature gained its notoriety and fan base by speaking into the silences that permeate urban life. The explosion of hip hop literature gained popularity in the early s by focusing on urban city landscapes to explore themes of crime, violence, drugs, and sexuality. Hip hop literature lends authenticity to its works by exploring recognizable themes of poverty, drug use, and violence.
Although many of these themes speak to the realities of life across America, hip hop literature delves deeper into the underworld of urban life to capture marginalized worlds of existence, where individuals struggle for survival and redemption. Despite his involvement in the crime world, or perhaps because of it, his novels portray the realities of poverty-stricken areas that often seem immune to police enforcement.
Relying on tales of violence, materialism, and drug use, the novel exposes the insurmountable odds stacked against inner city communities. Although Goines and Souljah laid the foundation for this genre, contemporary writers of hip hop literature continue to expand the conventions by delving deeper into everyday complexities of urban life.
Hip hop literature has evolved since its early days and contemporary authors continue to appear on bestseller lists. From the work of Erica Kennedy to Shannon Holmes, hip hop literature exposes the gritty lifestyles of the urban environment that mainstream American society overlooks. Although hip hop literature continues to offer a wide assortment of perspectives that continue to articulate the realities of urban life, some critics charge that such literary endeavors provide few viable solutions to issues plaguing the inner city.
Ultimately, these works take readers on a journey into familiar and unfamiliar waters as they attempt to account for the motivations that fuel the available choices of the urban landscape. In the realm of black popular culture, hip hop literature leads the next generation of writers.
Dent, Gina. New York: New Press, Goines, Donald. Neal, Mark Anthony. Scott, Jill. Souljah, Sister. The Coldest Winter Ever. New York: Pocket Books, Furthermore, Collins integrates within the text that notions of Black sexual politics must be analyzed outside of a monotheistic ideal of African Americans, employing the diversity and complexity of African Americans and African American culture. Organizationally, the book is divided into three sections, each of which illuminates three overarching arguments that are the groundwork for the text.
Black female bodies were sexualized in a different way in that their reproductive capacity was exploited, in turn fostering notions of black women as being sexually rapacious and immoral. The second part of the book places black sexual politics and new racism within the nexus of popular culture. Furthermore, Collins calls for a progressive black sexual politics that challenges the limits and marginalization of controlling images.
Collins provides the framework for discussing the ways in which violence has historically been perpetrated against black bodies. In present day terms, black bodies are being consistently raped and lynched by institutions, which exert a particular type of social control apropos to the post-civil rights, Hip Hop Generation. Furthermore, this institutionalized violence coupled with the dictates of new racism complicates the way in which black men and women view each other, especially with respect to intimate relationships.
Houston A. Black Studies, Rap, and the Academy, published in , is one of the early treatises on rap music that advocated for serious academic treatment of the subject. The work begins by looking at the complexity and heterogeneity of black studies. Black studies now known as African American studies in most places was criticized in its early days because the discipline itself necessarily lay outside of traditional academic studies. Covering a wide range of topics from the LA Riots of , which were sparked by the Rodney King verdict, to the indecency trial of rap group 2 Live Crew, Baker attempts to create a theoretical framework for the place rap could occupy in serious study of black culture and cultural productions.
According to Baker, to have a black intelligentsia who is out of touch with the people is useless; for him rap as a contemporary expression of culture, economics, and politics is an invaluable critical tool for studying and advancing black life. Yet, Black Studies, Rap, and the Academy is accused of not being as thoughtful a contribution to rap studies as it should have been. In Professor Gates appeared as an expert defense witness for 2 Live Crew as they faced obscenity charges.
Many of the criticisms surrounding the text mark Baker as out of touch with the rap scene of the s. Although Baker may have been beyond his area of expertise, he should certainly be credited with broaching the subject of rap in the academy at the end of the twentieth century. Black Studies, Rap, and the Academy, though dated, documents the controversial place rap occupied and continues to occupy in the American academy. Pavlic, Edward. A quarterly magazine founded and edited by Kenya Jordana James to entertain and inform African American adolescents.
Blackgirl Magazine was founded in by eleven-year-old Kenya Jordana James. Its purpose is to entertain and inform as well as to promote positive messages. The magazine now has a circulation of approximately 5, subscribers and is sold in a number of metropolitan Atlanta venues, such as African American bookstores and the like.
As founder and editor, Kenya James has been highly lauded for her accomplishments at such a young age. Kenyajordana Cakes, the baking venture that facilitated her start-up capital, followed an earlier jewelry business that she began in third grade. She has interviewed quite an impressive list of celebrities, representing the Hip Hop Generation and beyond. The magazine also beefs up its content by addressing real life and real girls, not only celebrity life.
James and Blackgirl are part of an emerging group of periodical literature grounded in hip hop and its culture. However, she also seems to be going beyond the status quo with an Afro-Centric take on the culture. In accordance with her tendency to turn one endeavor into another, James has recently moved into both the skin care and the clothing design industries. Her skin care line, the Kenyajordana Collection, expresses her commitment to an Afrocentric perspective.
Like the magazine itself, the collection has received national publicity. Magazines such as Honey, Vibe, Sister 2 Sister, and Heart and Soul have featured positive reporting on the skin care line. Her work presents a promising display of awareness and commitment for the culture of the day. Tikenya S. But it was the release in of Shaft that really heralds Blaxploitation properly. His son, Gordon Parks Jr. Aside from the contributions of directors such as Parks and Parks Jr.
The militia is not too keen on Pinky selling drugs to their own in the neighborhood. Although this representation is neither positive nor subtle, the role of Jones occupies a central fulcrum, with the urban drug dealers and black militants as opposite polarities. This is why the good guys are so willing to defend the dojo—they know what it means to the community. Women were now ascending to the ranks of action heroes, previously dominated by men.
To make exploitation movies as cheaply as possible, a number of movies were made in Asia—including the early Pam Grier classics Women in Cages and Black Mama, White Mama The pimp, the man in the wild clothes and enormous hat who lives off the women who sell their bodies on the street, seems like an odd choice for a hero. They are neither heroes nor villains, but represent the permeability of life and of the processes of change. For many theorists of the post-civil rights black youth culture, the pimp was the emblem for emulation.
The sequence is a tad surreal, with children playing and couples arguing—the whole scene feels like the height of normalcy and yet, these are pimps and prostitutes. But that is the point. This sequence has an overriding sense of community to it, a sense of family and security. The people who work in the sex industry are not presented as deviant or pathetic—quite the contrary. They are presented as real people who have real lives.
His brother wants him to be a militant, his mother wants him to be a good Christian, his friends want him to be a Mack, the cops want him to be a criminal, and the mob wants him to be a junky again so they can control him. The roles that Goldie has available to him—militant, Christian, pimp, criminal, junky—are, in many respects, the only options black men felt were open to them in the early s. Goldie is placed in opposition with his own brother—where Goldie wants to rule the streets, his brother wants to clean them up. But this kind of polarity also has a further symbolic dimension, whereby brothers are not just brothers i.
By the end of the movie Goldie and his blood brother come to a tacit understanding. They envy him his money, his women, his cool, his attitude, and his freedom. Finally, what stands out most about The Mack are the details we get about the pimp business. As we follow Goldie in his quest to be the best pimp on the Sunset Strip, we also learn how the industry operates.
The legacy of Blaxploitation is still felt today. BLOGS The practice of blogging preceded the naming of the phenomenon, with many of its attributes being used in other Web-based communication tools, such as Usenet newsgroups and personal homepages popularized in the mids and s. With the creation of template sites, such as Open Diary in and LiveJournal and Blogger in , users were able to maintain their own blogs regardless of Web programming expertise. Initially, most blogs were maintained and consumed by a small techno-literate population.
As of , Blog-watch site Technorati tracked According to Rebecca Blood Weblogs are the place for daily stories, impassioned reactions, mundane details, and miscellanea. They are as varied as their maintainers, and they are creating a generation of involved, impassioned citizens, and articulate, observant human beings. Early bloggers, such as Lynne D. Johnson Lynnedjohnson.
This established a hip hopinspired online community through an Internet-based call and response. Synergy and community building among the early bloggers was an essential tool. Digital relationships were fostered with black political bloggers such as Chris Rabb Afronetizen , Keith Boykin Keithboykin. For bloggers posting about a culture heavily controlled and decontextualized from its origins by corporate interests, hip hop blogging became a means to re-politicize the movement. Debates about authenticity and commercialization raged online between bloggers about their own sites, echoing similarly contested tropes in hip hop musical and intellectual circles.
Bloggers were able to enhance the content available on their sites and spike readership with the use of integrated mixed media—music and video in particular. Leaked unreleased music once valuable to bootleggers and DJs was instead posted on audio blogs, sometimes shared by the artists or the labels themselves to garner publicity or gauge interest from fans.
New York DJ and former radio host Stretch Armstrong digitized cassette recordings of rare Nas and Redman recordings on his Konstant Kontact page from his own collection. Images of artists and gossip about their personal lives became desired fodder for such sites, and artist Kanye West regularly spoke about blogs in interviews and his music. Blogs continued to serve as alternative spaces for commentary and critique alongside major media outlets, and some bloggers were also viewed as respected spokespeople for the culture.
In , blogger Karsh created the Black Weblog Awards, which has turned into an annual voter-based honor. Most mainstream music and entertainment titles not only developed in-house blogging outlets but also hired outside bloggers to post exclusive content to their sites. Others who were members of mainstream publications also used the medium to voice dissension or release privileged information. John Rodzvilla, ed.
Cambridge: Perseus, In response, Doughboy leads the friends in search of the killers. The discourse of the breakdown of the African American family, although important, is highly ideological and problematic as an explanation of social problems, such as drugs, crime, gang violence, and poverty itself. Diawara, Manthia. Manthia Diawara, ed. New York: Routledge, , 3— Dyson, Michael Eric. Watkins, S. In several stories and interviews, Braxton points out the ways that southern hip hop artists such as Killer Mike and Tela are as lyrically skilled as their northern counterparts, and he argues—quite convincingly—that southern duo Outkast is the greatest group in the history of hip hop.
Braxton has also written about GRITS, a Christian rap duo, and by doing so became one of the few mainstream hip hop journalists to write seriously about gospel rap. Braxton has a strong sense of community that resonates in his writing. Powell, Kevin, and Charlie Braxton. Also known as Breakdance: The Movie, this tale of two West Coast break dancers joining forces with a white, classically trained dancer represents the gradual mainstreaming of contemporary hip hop culture that began in the early s.
Laura H. Written by Charise L. Cheney, this work is a collection of critical essays published by New York University Press in Cheney argues that hip hop deserves serious attention and reveals important social undercurrents in black culture. The role of violence, sex, and gendered language is examined in context of the progression of Black Nationalism, with emphasis on incidents involving the Black Panthers, hero-worshipped as innovators by raptivists in following years. A new sense of nationalism, heavily present in hip hop music, formed as a response to the turmoil of the twenty preceding years.
Contemporary activists, however, challenged what older generations considered progress. As such, rap music became an invaluable medium in which Black Nationalism could be discussed and developed. Cheney does not excuse this image but contextualizes it: with many black men dying young in violent acts, living in homes headed by women, or going to BROWN, CLAUDE prison, raptivists sought to reclaim masculinity and power. In response to this hypermasculinization, Cheney explores female raptivists including Sister Souljah and Queen Latifah, negotiating the complex dynamics of women who choose to participate in a tradition known for suppressing women.
The representation of and response to homosexuality is also detailed, contextualizing negative reactions propagated by the Black Power movement of the s. Consequently, the Bible as a tool for establishing black suppression in American history is explored, as well as divine providence and visions of the apocalypse in Black Nationalism. Special attention is given to the rising power of hip hop and representative organizations. From this struggle can come peaceful revolution and liberation. Leslie Heywood and Jennifer Drake, eds.
Karley K. Author of Manchild in the Promised Land—one of the seminal memoirs detailing growing up in urban black America. At Howard, Brown pursued a liberal arts degree, worked part-time, and wrote short stories. During the same year, Lyndon B. Brown had no way of knowing the impact his coming-of-age tale would have on its readers. Boyd, Herb, and Robert L. Allen, eds. New York: Ballantine Books, Rosenblatt, Roger.
Black Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Author whose memoir A Piece of Cake: A Memoir chronicles her rise from sexual abuse, drug addiction, and gang violence to her career as an attorney. As a result, Brown and her brother Larry were not permitted to reside with Long. Though she ran away, this only shifted the sexual, physical, and psychological violence from the foster home to the street, where Brown suffered through prostitution accented by alcohol and narcotics.
Brown did have an uncle who remained a lifeline that she consistently reached out to as she suffered abuse from her various foster parents. He eventually arranged for Brown to live with her great aunt Becky in South Central Los Angeles where Becky also cared for her three grandsons whose mother tragically died in an automobile accident.
During a party celebrating her 15th birthday she was shot in the back during a drive-by. After making a full recovery, Brown left the gang. Brown returned to San Diego, where she became fully emancipated at age sixteen. Brown continued nursing an alcohol and drug addiction while supporting herself through shoplifting scams and narcotics dealing.
While continuing to feed these vices, Brown attended a vocational school, where she learned skills necessary to being a legal secretary. She worked full time but continued feeding her drug addiction. In Brown entered a recovery program at Mesa Vista Hospital. After earning an associates degree, she was accepted to San Diego State University. Brown worked full time, funded one hundred percent of her education, and graduated magna cum laude. A Piece of Cake: A Memoir. New York: Three Rivers Press, Michelle S.
In addition to her other multi-media venues, since , Brown has written several popular novels that extend her outreach and qualify her as someone who is important to the second wave of hip hop literature. Hailing from nature-rich California, Parry Brown is obviously a force of nature herself. Without counseling experience or training as a psychologist, Brown sought to bolster the self-esteem of the women who she saw as her audience. In addition to her publishing efforts, and as the director of publicity for the output of that publishing company, Brown is a board member for several companies as well as a radio talk show host.
A divorcee who was newly remarried in , Brown wants to pass along her gospel of strength and self-esteem to other black women. What Goes Around: A Novel is a sequel that follows the lives of Terry and his new wife in raising the girls when their birthmother wants back into their lives because she needs a kidney transplant. New York: Kensington Publishing, San Pedro: ShanKrys, Shirt Off His Back. New York: Strivers Row, What Goes Around: A Novel.
The introductory scene of Dre and Syd as kids in a park listening to a freestyle cipher featuring Dana Dane, Doogie Fresh, and Slick Rick is contrasted by the present day scene: Syd working as an editor and Dre in a boardroom at a major record label. From red Kool-Aid block parties in the Bronx, to champagne toasts in Soho. Can hip hop stay true to its origins while still enjoying its mainstream success? Can Dre and Syd be both best friends and lovers? Viewed as one of the paragons of the literary movement within hip hop culture, Bulletproof Diva is a critique of certain aspects of the movement itself.
Rather, it examines the fusions of racial and sexual identities and the aesthetics of black hair. Thompson, Deborah. Before becoming a novelist, she worked in a variety of paid and volunteer positions geared toward promoting the public good and effecting social change. For example, she once worked as the deputy director of two alternative incarceration programs for the Vera Institute of Justice. Several years later, Quintero did advocacy work for the Hispanic AIDS Forum and once organized a focus group of transgender Latinas in order to better serve that constituency.
This real life experience is evidenced in the nuanced, compelling, and self-actualized characters revealed in Burn. It is obvious by her third novel that Black Artemis has several trademark qualities in creating her hip hop noir. First, hip hop culture is always a supporting character in all of her work—providing education around the sociopolitical history of hip hop.
Second, women serve as protagonists on their own terms, replete with contradictions and compelling humanity. And third, Black Artemis writes in an entertaining way, especially as it relates to the crime-drama elements of her stories. Told from the perspective of a complicated yet endearing heroine named Jasmine Reyes, Burn is a novel about the risk and consequences of pursuing alternatives when the path validated by society is either inaccessible or fails. She and twin brother Jason learned to survive by any means necessary.
Through her work she meets a client who reminds her of her beloved brother. Jasmine posts bail for Macho, and after nearly a year of stability, he disappears without a trace. All the while, true to form, Black Artemis delivers timely commentary on issues such as gender identity, healthcare inequities, immigration reform, sexual orientation, and identity politics.
Black Artemis. Burn: A Novel. The publication of hip hop, street, and urban literature has grown exponentially in the last decade. In the s, Robert Beck, also know as Iceberg Slim, wrote about his experiences as a pimp and the prostitution culture. Goines, an ex-con, drug addict, and pimp, commenced his writing career in prison. He wrote over twenty books about the street game.
The success of this genre of literature quickly faded away. From the late s to the present day, rap music, which is the epitome of the term hip hop, has created a worldwide trend in clothing, music, lifestyle, and culture. A generation of people born in the s, s, and s not only want to listen to rappers rap about being in gangs, police brutality, their dealings with women or men, hustling drugs, or the harsh realities of the inner city but they also want to read about these experiences as well.
They are now rushing to bookstores and street vendors to buy books that have a direct linkage to the hip hop culture. As a result of this, the business of publishing hip hop literature has been quite a successful venture. Several pioneers and key elements making up the business of hip hop publishing are Vickie M. Stringer, who is an author and founder of Triple Crown Publications, nonmainstream and mainstream publishers; the rapper 50 Cents; and the writer Zane. Vickie M. Stringer grew up in a middle class neighborhood.
Her mother was a school teacher and her father was an electrical engineer. While a freshman at Western Michigan University, she fell in love with a drug dealer and the street life. She dropped out of college, had a son, and became a professional criminal and madam. Stringer read more than her eyes could stand in prison. After being freed from jail, Stringer finished her novel in about six weeks and sent her unsolicited manuscript to twenty-six publishing houses but was rejected by all.
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A thermal imager with its instantly available images is ideal, although film images may also be needed as they are more durable. However, the software for the measurement lines is sometimes incorrect! To accurately measure the sonograms by hand they must not be too small. The magnification factor should be A new probe-guiding system Sect. As the examination should be done standing rather than sitting, the table or trolley on which the cradle is placed should be of appropriate height with the cradle mounted on it. Researchers have shown that this is the projection most easily interpreted by the brain.
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All hip joints will therefore be projected so that they look like x-ray antero-posterior views of the right hip Fig. Possible projections of the infant hip, using ultrasonography. Of all the possibilities, the anatomical projection is the most suitable. Projections b and c are not recommended, but projection c is still better than projection d 1.
This is because bone is highly reflective and blocks the through transmission of the ultrasound beam, preventing structures deep to the bone being seen by ultrasound. Collagenous Connective Tissue and Fibrocartilaginous Structures: These are highly echogenic but echolucent allowing through transmission of the ultrasound beam so that structures deep to them can be seen. Ossification Within Hyaline Cartilage: Developing blood vessels and the condensation of cells that precede ossification give bright echoes but are sonolucent. These occur within the femoral head and at the chondro-osseous junction in the acetabular roof.
These must be differentiated from the echoes that can occur in the hyaline cartilage roof of decentred hip joints when fibrocartilaginous degeneration caused by pathological pressure and shearing occurs. Fat and Fibrous Connective Tissue: Usually give few or weak echoes, sometimes fat may be anechoic. In the infant hip fatty tissue may be seen as a hypoechoic zone in the acetabular fossa between the lower limb of the os ilium and the ligamentum teres or between the insertion of the joint capsule and the reflex head of the rectusfemoris muscle. Hyaline Cartilage: Is hypoechoic or anechoic depending on machine settings.
The sinusoidal vessels may be seen as faint serpiginous echoes. Anatomical interpretation of the sonographic image of an infant proximal femur: 1, Bony part of the femoral neck sound shadow. The strong echo at the chondro-osseous junction separates the bony part from the cartilaginous part of the femoral neck. These are separated from the bone shaft by the chondro-osseous border epiphyseal plate Fig. The chondro-osseous junction is very echogenic due to the histological structure of cell columns in the epiphyseal plate and then the total reflection of the sound beam by the bony structures of the femur.
The echo of the chondro-osseous junction is an important landmark to be used to identify the femoral neck and as a basis for the identification of all the other anatomical structures. In order to achieve the best standard of hip ultrasound, we now know that, ideally, the chondroosseous junction should be seen on every sonogram.
Not only as the landmark for anatomical identification, but also because its appearance alters if the transducer is tilted. Tilting the transducer distorts the image and can lead to serious misdiagnosis see Chap. The shape of the chondro-osseous junction changes with growth. The shape of the echoes also depends on the rotation, abduction and or adduction of the femur.
There are three basic shapes Fig. The small serpiginous echoes of the sinusoids in the hyaline cartilage may be seen Fig. Some ultrasound settings will show the thin, completely anechoic cell-free outer rim of the femoral head. Age-related changes in the shape of the chondro-osseous junction of the femoral neck. Arrows mark the palisades. The surface of the femoral head, zona annularis 2 has no sinusoids and appears as an echo-free ring.
The average age at which echoes appear in a normal mature infant is at approximately 5—7 weeks. It is not always in the centre of the femoral head and thus its shape and location in the head is variable. These two reasons make it impossible to assess the position of the femoral head in the socket using the ossific nucleus. The concentration of cells with new vessel formation is the first stage of development at the ossific nucleus site Fig. These changes cause echoes on ultrasound and the nucleus becomes visible ultrasonically. However, it will not become visible on an x-ray until calcification occurs at least 4—6 weeks later see Sect.
There is a time difference of 6—8 weeks between early ossification being seen on ultrasound and it becoming visible on an xray. Ultrasound and an x-ray taken on the same day are therefore not comparable. The half-moon phenomenon appears when the femoral head is partly ossified. The ossified femoral capital nucleus blocks the sound waves. It leaves the lower limb of the os ilium in sound shadow, and the sonographic image of the infant hip cannot be used for diagnostic interpretation ossific nucleus therefore appears as a crescentic or half moon-shaped echo.
It is not round nor necessarily in the centre of the femoral head and only its outer border can be seen. Any attempts to draw lines on a sonogram similar to these drawn on an x-ray will always give a false impression of the hip. This will also vary depending on the position of the femoral head. If the ultrasound beam hits the largest diameter of the nucleus, a large echo will be seen, whereas if it hits the periphery of the nucleus, only a small reflection will be seen.
In these circumstances the majority of the nucleus lies outside the sonographic plane. It is not possible to perform reproducible measurement of the size of the nucleus with ultrasound. Identifying anatomical structures of the infant acetabulum as seen on ultrasonography. This landmark is essential if one is to be certain one is in the correct plane through the centre of the acetabulum. Unless the lower limb of the os ilium is seen, the sonogram cannot be used with a single exception: Sect.
If there is a large femoral head ossific nucleus, it blocks the ultrasonic beam and prevents visualization of the lower limb, so no diagnosis can be made. In these circumstance another imaging method must be used. The extent of ossification in the hip joint is therefore the limiting factor in hip ultrasound. Thus the use of hip ultrasound is only indirectly limited by the age of the patient. This is closely applied to the femoral neck and is continuous with the perichondrium of the greater trochanter.
Seen ultrasonically the synovial fold is a poorly defined bright echo, or two close parallel line echoes. Beware: The echo of the synovial fold is often mistaken for the acetabular labrum. If one follows the joint capsule cranially from the synovial fold on the surface of the femoral head, the echo of the acetabular labrum is found on the inner side of the joint capsule. Next to the labrum is the hypoechoic hyaline cartilage portion of the acetabular roof, medial to which are the bright echoes of the bony acetabulum.
The inner-most portion of the bony acetabulum is the lower limb of the iliac bone. Caudal to it is the hypoechoic triradiate cartilage. On the lateral surface of the triradiate cartilage is hypoechoic fatty tissue in the acetabular fossa. Identifying the anatomical structures of the chondro-osseous acetabulum: 1, labrum; 2, lower limb of os ilium; 3, cartilaginous part of the acetabular roof the fatty tissue and the femoral head the bright echoes of the ligamentum teres may be seen.
The ligamentum teres inserts onto the central fovea of the femoral head. This insertion gives a strong echo caution: this echo is often mistaken for the lower limb of the os ilium. Takecare: When following from the synovial fold to the joint capsule, be careful not to follow the echoes of the inter-muscular septum instead of the joint capsule. The echo-poor perichondrial gap 2 is between the proximal perichondrium 1 and the joint capsule. Acetabular labrum 3. Its image comprises four different structures: 1, tendon of rectus femoris muscle; 2, proximal insertion of joint capsule with fat pad; 3, ischio femoral ligament; 4, perichondrium.
In most cases the femoral head lies so close to the cartilaginous portion of the acetabulum that the narrow joint space cannot be seen. In some sonograms, however, a fine curved anechoic line is seen on the surface of the femoral head. The cartilaginous portion is composed of the hyaline cartilage of the acetabular roof and the fibrocartilaginous acetabular labrum. The labrum is the most peripheral part of the acetabulum, in the caudal portion of its circumference it bridges the acetabular incisura as the ligamentum transversum. The ligamentum transversum has no ultrasound relevance but is 2.
Distally it is continuous with the joint capsule and proximally merges in to the periosteum of the iliac bone. The proximal portion of the perichondrium is fairly thick and gives strong echoes on ultrasound Fig. The acetabular labrum can be located using the so-called labrum definitions.
Between these echoes and the echogenic ischio-femoral ligament that lies on the joint capsule, there is an apparent interruption of the echoes, the so-called perichondrial gap. There is no adhesion between the joint capsule and the labrum and there is a small recess between them.
The base of the labrum Tips for identifying the labrum: The acetabular labrum can sometimes be difficult to recognize on a sonogram. In some circumstances type IIIb joints the labrum cannot be identified separately from the hyaline cartilage roof which is also echogenic. The labrum is always in contact with the femoral head. The labrum is always caudal to the perichondrial gap. The labrum is where the contour of the joint capsule diverges from the surface of the femoral head. This definition is needed to locate the labrum in type III b hip joints.
In this case the ultrasound image must not be used for diagnosis. Caudal to the lower limb is the hypoechoic triradiate cartilage. Caudal to this the bright echo of the ischial bone will be seen in some planes Fig. There is a pad of fat and connective tissue on the floor of the acetabular fossa which may be seen as weak echoes overlying the lower limb of the os ilium. The Lower Limb of the Os Ilium The lower limb of the os ilium measures 1—3 mm in size depending on the age of the baby.
The lower limb must be clearly identified. It is an essential marker of the correct sectional plane and must be clearly seen on the sonogram unless the hip is decentred. Anatomically the lower limb of The Ligamentum Teres the Ligament of the Femoral Head This linear structure may be seen in whole or in part in the floor of the acetabular fossa. It is a strong reflection echo from its insertion into the femoral head at the central fovea to its 2.
The strong echo must not be confused with the os ilium. The Transverse Acetabular Ligament This lies inferiorly and forms the continuation of the acetabular labrum over the acetabular incisura. It may well be seen especially in the newborn. The bony rim is the most lateral point of the concavity of the bony socket. If instead you start from the ilium and look caudally from lateral to medial, the normal irregularities in the contour of the ilium can result in inaccurate identification of this important landmark too proximally.
Frequently there is a small acoustic shadow just medial to the point where the contour changes at the osseous rim. The ossific nucleus is not anatomically the centre of the femoral head. Enlargement of the ossification centre in the femoral head is the limiting factor in hip ultrasound. Sonograms show what will be visible 6—8 weeks later on an x-ray. This will be explained more precisely in Sect.
To define a plane, one requires three points in space to be defined. For hip ultrasound these points are: 1. The lower limb of the bony ilium in the depth of the acetabular fossa Figs. The mid portion of the acetabular roof. The acetabular labrum. If any one of these points is missing or not clearly shown, the sonogram is worthless and must not Fig.
Sonographic images of different sectional planes through the acetabulum. The rotational axis is through the lower limb of the os ilium. There is only one exception to this rule which will be stated in Sect. If this landmark is not seen on the ultrasound image, then the sectional plane does not pass through the centre of the acetabulum.
Even if the sectional plane and acetabular labrum are correctly shown, no diagnosis can be made in a centred hip joint without the pivotal point of the centre of the acetabulum being seen, i. It is possible to differentiate whether the sectional plane passes through the anterior, mid or posterior part by the characteristic shape of the iliac bone immediately above the acetabulum in each of the three planes.
If one compares the anterior and posterior sections from the same joint, it is clear that the bony coverage seems better developed posteriorly than in the mid or anterior sections. The sectional plane is tilted forward and backward, respectively. The tilting causes deflection of the ultrasound beam, with poor reflection of the labrum, which is inadequately seen If the standard vertical projection is used, the iliac silhouette above the bony rim is concave towards the right of the picture, i.
The concavity is the gluteal fossa which is situated in the posterior part of the iliac wing. A summary is given in Figs. When the femoral head slides out the socket, it slides not only proximally but also posteriorly. The posterior sectional plane. Using the anatomical projection as a reference, the silhouette of the iliac bone in the posterior sectional plane bends to the right, away from the probe solid line 3.
The middle sectional planes the standard plane. The anterior sectional plane. The silhouette of the iliac bone bends to the left, towards the probe solid line 23 24 3 The Standard Plane The displaced femoral head and the acetabulum, with its lower limb of the os ilium, are therefore in different planes. Therefore if one follows the displaced femoral head, the ultrasound plane is no longer in the standard plane.
The direction of a displacement of the femoral head means that it is usually the posterior sectional plane that is seen Fig. In displaced hips the important thing is to differentiate where the femoral head has pressed the hyaline cartilage of the acetabular roof: cranially type III or caudally type IV. The system for orientation given in Sect. The only consistently reproducible scan section is the posterior section. This, therefore, is the starting point for a tomogram-like examination of the acetabular roof.
This should be used when it is impossible to get an iliac silhouette which runs parallel to the transducer immediately in a standard examination. The femoral head is located posteriorly and is not visible in the standard plane but only in the posterior sectional plane. The lower limb of the os ilium will often not be visible in the same plane as the femoral head, as these landmarks are located in different planes. This is easily identified as the concavity straightens. It usually works in everyday practice to find the standard plane.
If, for some reason as described in Sects. Only a section that is the standard sectional plane can be evaluated and measured. A section which is not in the standard plane is not relevant for diagnosis or treatment for exception, see Sect. One can only establish whether the sectional plane passes through the middle of the acetabular roof, or too far anterior or posterior, if the lower limb of the os ilium is seen. If it is seen then the middle portion of the acetabular roof is identified by the shape of the iliac contour above the acetabulum see Sect.
Only if the lower limb of the os ilium and the sectional plane are both correct does it make sense to try and identify the third landmark, the acetabular labrum. The acetabular labrum may sometimes be difficult to see, but its position must be identified even if, as in type III b joints see Sect. If it cannot be seen, the sonogram is useless.
If the ultrasound beam is vertical to the labrum it can usually be seen well. If, however, the beam is tilted the labrum may not be seen at all Fig. Once this has been done, the sonogram should be checked to see whether it meets the criteria for the standard sectional plane. The anatomical identification should always be completed prior to checking the sectional plane landmarks, never the reverse. Tilting effects are checked last Chap.
Acetabular labrum see help points in Sect. Chondro-osseous junction epiphyseal plate of the femur 2. Femoral head 3. Synovial fold to avoid confusion with the acetabular labrum! To define a plane in 3D, three coordinates or landmarks are required. For a diagnostic, measurable sonogram, the three landmarks that must be present are: the b formed acetabular roof; 7, bony part of acetabular roof; 8, bony rim: turning point from concavity to convexity. Sonogram is acceptable for reading only if all three landmarks are present.
This sonogram cannot be used for diagnostic interpretation. This sonogram cannot be used for diagnostic interpretation c lower limb of the os ilium, the mid portion of the acetabular roof and the acetabular labrum. First check that the tip of the lower limb of the os ilium is shown. It is possible, by tilting the transducer, to produce an iliac silhouette that looks like that of the standard mid section but which does not pass through the centre of the acetabulum.
In order to avoid this mistake it is essential, when evaluating the sectional plane, to check that the pivot point inferior limb of the os ilium is found first. Except when, in a decentred hip joint, the displaced femoral head slides out of the socket in a supero-posterior direction and therefore leaves the standard sectional plane. In these circumstances the inferior margin of the os ilium is often not seen and the sectional plane is usually posterior. These sonograms can be evaluated descriptively anatomically whether type III or IV but may certainly not be measured Sect. Pay special attention to the order of identification of the three landmarks.
Only if the lower margin of the os ilium is shown can one proceed to check the sectional plane and lastly the labrum. Do not accept a sonogram when one of the anatomical points is not clearly identifiable. Additional check: 1. Are there tilting effects? Is the correct scale being used? Minimum The height of the dislocated femoral head does not automatically correlate with the severity of the anatomical deformity.
There are two forms of hip dislocation. The hip joint fails to form properly during embryological development. The femoral head and socket show severe deformities and the femoral head was never in the correct position teratological form. The cell configuration for the labrum, bony roof and hyaline cartilage were never normal arthrogryposis multiplex. Initially the femoral head was positioned in the socket but certain biomechanical factors cause the normal development to cease and the femoral head begins to slide out of the socket deforming the acetabulum developing dislocation of the hip—DDH.
Basic Principles If a femoral head slides out of the socket, this process of dislocation leads to deformity. This is primarily of the cartilage part of the acetabular roof but, inevitably, the bony portion becomes damaged also. Through accurate analysis of the pathological changes in the cartilage and bony socket it is possible to state the severity of the pathology affecting the hip joint. Eventually these pathological changes need to be reversed by treatment without causing further iatrogenic damage to the femoral head avascular necrosis. The more accurate and precise the typing, the more appropriate and precise the treatment can be.
The femoral head dislocates out of a well-developed socket. Wrong diagnosis: The hip joint was not a type I in the first place. For unknown reasons, disorders of growth can occur later. Answer: When there is: 1. A neuromuscular abnormality: This results in an imbalance of muscular forces on the hip joint. These forces affect the growth of the socket enormously.
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With pathological muscle tension the balance of forces in the hip joint An explanation for this phenomenon is partial damage to the chondro-osseous border of the acetabular roof during head displacement. As a result, ossification is incomplete even with correct treatment and finally results in a dysplastic bony acetabular roof. This means that the degree of ossification is appropriate for a hip joint in a 3-month-old.
The bony socket is well developed. The bony rim is angular or slightly blunt. A type I hip joint may be present at birth when there may even be an ultrasonically demonstrable femoral head ossific nucleus. Topographically, the bony rim marked by an arrow is the point of transition from concavity to convexity measurement point. The total coverage bony socket plus cartilage socket keeps the femoral head firmly in the socket. The bony socket is poorly developed, the bony rim is flattened and the cartilaginous acetabular roof is pushed cranially, i. Due to the poor bony development, the femoral head has dislocated.
As it has dislocated it has pushed the majority of the cartilage roof cranially and only a small part of the cartilage is pressed caudally downwards towards the original acetabulum. Type D is the first stage of a decentred joint and is explained in Sect. These changes create echoes in the a b Fig. Most of the cartilage is pressed up; a small part is pressed down. The femoral head is in a secondary moulding.
The echogenicity of the hyaline cartilage roof is the same as the echogenicity of the femoral head. There is no difference in the echogenicity of the cartilaginous acetabular roof compared with the cartilaginous femoral head: both structures are hyaline cartilage. Impression: type IIIa hip. Type IIIb hip joints have become rarities because of early screening and are seen very seldom.
If it is horizontal towards the bony socket, or dips caudally and then rises towards the bony acetabular roof trough shaped , it is a type IV joint. The cartilaginous acetabular roof is pushed downwards caudally by the displaced femoral head towards the original acetabulum. The perichondrium indicates the whereabouts of the hyaline cartilage acetabular roof: cranial or caudal.
The position of the labrum is irrelevant. If In type II joints centred the wide, as yet unossified, cartilage roof must ultimately ossify in order to turn into a type I joint. This process of ossification of the hyaline cartilage occurs in the same way as the development of the femoral head ossific nucleus. Echoes therefore develop in the hyaline cartilage as a result of the ossification process. As with the echoes that develop in the nucleus see Sect. In type IV hip joints, the echo from the perichondrium dips downwards, or runs horizontally to the bony roof; the cartilaginous roof is compressed between the femoral head and the bony roof and is pressed in the direction of the original acetabulum.
The cartilaginous acetabular roof no longer covers the femoral head. The x-ray cannot detect the earliest stages of ossification. The sonogram is 4—6 weeks ahead of the x-ray. Thus, an angular contour of the bony rim is always a good prognostic sign. Schematic drawing of the physiological maturation of a deficient acetabular roof: The bony rim undergoes metamorphosis, changing its shape over time and extending towards the cartilaginous acetabular roof.
The extension of the bony rim within the cartilaginous roof improves the shape of the bony roof degeneration. Which they are due to can only be determined by identifying the type of hip joint. Attention: Ossification in centred joints. Degeneration in decentred joints. Comparison with the femoral head Fig.
In order to exclude machine-made artefactual echoes, the echogenicity of the acetabular roof hyaline cartilage must be compared with that of the femoral head hyaline cartilage. Artefacts Fig. Assessing the echogenicity of the cartilaginous roof: the echoes originating from the hyaline cartilage roof must be compared with the echoes originating from the hyaline femoral head 5.
During the process of dislocation with the displacement of the cartilaginous acetabular roof, the proximal perichondrium and the adjacent rectus tendon are compressed. These resulting echoes must not be mistaken as degeneration in the proximal portion of the hyaline cartilage acetabular roof.
Over the course of time, some standardized terms have proved to be good for this description. It must, however, be understood that a description is only a subjective impression, and therefore cannot replace an objective, reproducible, quantifiable measurement technique. Nevertheless, the description should continue to be taught and learnt during training courses. This way the observer learns to analyse the hip joint systematically and is forced to put the shape and structure of the three essentials — bony acetabular roof, bony rim and the cartilaginous acetabular roof — into specific categories which finally leads to a diagnosis.
As the description itself is not sufficient for diagnosis but is complimented by an ever-improving measurement technique, the descriptive terms have been simplified and are summarised in Table 6. Two different joints with almost the same AC angle can show different contours to the bony rim: one may be angular whilst the other is rather blunt or slightly rounded.
The femoral head has deformed the cartilaginous acetabular roof. Descriptive examples: 1. The bony socket is good, the bony rim blunt, the cartilaginous acetabular roof is covering. The bony socket is poor, the bony rim is flattened, the cartilaginous acetabular roof is pushed cranially with echoes. The bony socket is good, the bony rim rounded, the cartilaginous acetabular roof is pushed caudally. This description is impossible because this kind of hip joint cannot exist. These two terms contradict each other. Furthermore, the femoral head would not normally dislocate out of a well-developed bony socket for exception, see Sect.
If the descriptions come from a different type, the initial diagnosis is usually wrong. There is only one exception to this rule Table 6. In the case described above, the cartilage roof is usually noticeably wider than in a typical type I joint. This obvious discrepancy is explained by secondary ossification Fig. Such joints, by measurement of the their bony coverage, are type II joints. However, the ossification occurring in the cartilage roof at its junction with the bony acetabulum has already caused the osseous rim to change from round to angular.
A similar phenomenon can be seen on an x-ray. When a dysplastic joint is being treated, the first sign of recovery is a small angular contour on the bony rim even though the entire socket, according to the high acetabular roof AC angle, is still dysplastic. Type I hip. Compare with the image in b 6. A statement about the age. Description — Congruity! Type 4. Alpha angle, beta angle. Further management follow-up, treatment, or discharge.
The first step in compiling a report on a sonogram is the anatomical identification epiphyseal plate — femoral head — synovial fold — labrum — invariable sequence — identification of the bony rim. The second step: check the three landmarks and tilting effects. The third step: description of the structures: bony socket — bony rim — cartilaginous acetabular roof. By now a preliminary hip type can be stated but it must be confirmed by the fourth step: measurement with alpha and beta angles.
The description is subjective and cannot replace the measurement do it by facts not by feeling! If there is a discrepancy it must be verified whether the description or the measurement is incorrect. For practical reasons it is recommended that the age in weeks is noted on the sonogram in addition to the name and date of birth. Two angles emerge from the lines; these are the bony angle alpha which quantifies the bony socket and the cartilage angle beta which quantifies the cartilaginous acetabular roof.
With these two angles, the entire socket with its bony and cartilaginous parts can be accurately assigned to a specific hip type. This measurement system with alpha and beta angles has the advantage that it is not dependent on either the position of the baby or the projection. It is not tied down by the position of the femoral head and is therefore irrespective of the position of the leg. Furthermore it is not dependent on the presence of the femoral head ossification centre. Other measurement systems with factors, quotients etc.
A further problem for the identification of the lower limb of the os ilium is caused by the anatomical circumstances. Caudal to the lower limb of the os ilium is the hypoechoic zone of the triradiate cartilage. Lateral to the lower limb the echoes of the fatty tissue in the acetabular fossa are seen.